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Nova Southeastern Health Risks in Society and Choose Healthy Behaviors Response




Today, with increased interest in global and community health, more community researchers more than ever before are investigating health disparities and developing interventions to support health equity (Simonsen et al., 2017). Directed by the ideologies of community-based participatory research as well as social-ecological framework, researchers can contribute to efforts to identify disparities and to design, implement, and assess community-based innovations that provide expression and involvement to those greatly affected.

LGBT persons include all ethnic groups and races, social-economic classes, and religions. Gender identity and sexual orientation queries are often not inquired on most national surveys and hence, making it challenging to approximate the population of LGBT persons and their healthcare needs (Emlet, 2016). Research suggests that LGBT persons experience health disparities related to repudiation of their human and legal rights, discrimination, and societal stigma. Specifically, discrimination against LGBT individuals is linked to suicidal ideation, drug abuse, and psychiatric disarrays. Experiences of victimization and violence are common for LGBT persons and have lasting impacts on the person and the community (Emlet, 2016). Family, personal, and social acceptance of gender identity and sexual orientation influences the psychological health of LGBT individuals. Precisely, LGB individuals are at higher risk for suicidal ideation, poor mental health, mental health disorders (e.g., anxiety and depression), and psychological distress than heterosexuals. Besides, compared to heterosexuals, LGB populations experience more physical limitations, have poorer overall health, and higher rates of disability. Also, high rates of HIV are observed among gay and bisexual men and transgender women (Emlet, 2016). Bisexual females and lesbians are more likely to be obese or overweight and lesbians are less likely to access cancer preventive services.

Community researchers can successfully address LGBT health problems by consistently gathering sexual orientation and gender identity data in medical records and national or state surveys (Simonsen et al., 2017). They can also encourage LGBT patients to provide their preferred names and pronouns. In doing so, it will allow them and policymakers to correctly characterize LGBT health as well as disparities and design LGBTQ-inclusive procedures and policies. Besides, understanding LGBT health begins with researching the history of discrimination and oppression that these populations have encountered (Simonsen et al., 2017). Health promotion programs can help address health disparities among LGBT populations by increasing provider and community awareness of disparities in care, increasing the base of knowledge on roots and interventions to lessen health disparities and expanding medical insurance coverage.

In health promotion and the field of public health, logic models are still perceived as valuable tools, which demonstrate the relationship between desired outcomes and program input and activities (McCoy & Castner, 2020). These models are responsive and dynamic to the specific needs of initiatives and programs. Logic models assist communicate the health promotion program to individuals outside the program in a brief and captivating manner (McCoy & Castner, 2020). It also helps the program workforce gain a general understanding of their responsibilities, how the program functions, and identify areas where technical support or research is needed.


Emlet, C. A. (2016). Social, economic, and health disparities among LGBT older adults. Generations, 40(2), 16-22.…

McCoy, C. A., & Castner, J. (2020). Logic models for program evaluation in emergency nursing. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 46(1), 12-15.

Simonsen, S. E., Ralls, B., Guymon, A., Garrett, T., Eisenman, P., Villalta, J., … & Alexander, S. (2017). Addressing health disparities from within the community: community-based participatory research and community health worker policy initiatives using a gender-based approach. Women’s Health Issues, 27, S46-S53.


Raingruber (2017) discusses how socioeconomic status can affect health in that lower income and social status can be linked to poorer health outcomes in comparison to those higher up within society. By conducting research, more information can be discovered in relation to these issues. For example, one factor that was found to be a contributor to this relation of socioeconomic status and health is stress. Raingruber (2017) states how. “stress associated with work, the daily hassles of meeting life’s demands, and the psychological perception of having low control can create a cascade of negative psychobiological responses that eventually lead to disease or exacerbate existing conditions” (p. 115). To add, another research study looked to find ways that one’s surroundings affect health-promoting behaviors in those with less financial support. The findings showed that relationships between family and friends, as well as the environment of teachers can play a part (Park, 2018). These findings can help towards implementation of new interventions to make a positive difference.

There are many advantages of using logics models when planning and evaluating health promotion programs. Using a logics model allows for more of a visual and making sure that “each intervention is needed, measured, and linked to planned outcomes” (Raingruber, 2017, p. 340). One logical model was created in order to help with both activity and nutrition within a school in the Lower Amazon area (Dornelas de Souza et al., 2017). This logical model was constructed and allowed for good flow, and visualization that can help make promotion health easier to follow and understand. The model provided sections for strategic actions, financial resources, which activities would be done and the steps that would be taken from the initial results to long-term results (Dornelas de Souza et al., 2017).


Park, J. (2018). Predictors of health-promoting behaviors in children from low-income families: An ecological approach. Nursing & Health Sciences, 20(1), 60-68.

Souza, E. F., Soares, M. D., Santos, S. F., Paulo, T. R., Brandão, M. V., & Freitas Júnior, I. F. (2018). Constructing a logical model in school health: Experience on the lower Amazon region. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 71(3), 1198-1202.


Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States (Velasco-Mondragon et al., 2016). They suffer from higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, obesity and lack access to preventive health services (Brown et al., 2018). According to Velasco-Mondragon et al. (2016), some social determinants of health (SDH) that apply to Hispanics are “related to their socioeconomic status, cultural background, employment, and foreign-born or undocumented status.” Decreased health care access and risk factors to diseases, make Hispanics vulnerable to disease and death, which is why there is a great need for health promotion to reduce these health disparities. Communication is essential to provide great patient care. Understanding different cultural backgrounds, will impact the effects communication has and the best approach to take. A challenge of Hispanic patients is that many are non-English speaking, in which translators can be used. Assuring the patient understands the health teaching, as well as knowing the patient’s expectations, will improve their health care and reduce health disparities. As Nesbitt and Palomarez (2016) states, “Familiarity and understanding of culture can increase patient compliance, decrease implicit bias by providers, and improve patient trust in health care professionals.”

Logic models are used to see the intervention process and how it can produce outcomes. They represent the interventions in a simple, visual form (Mills et al., 2019). The advantage of logic models is they allow organization of data, outcome measures and help assess the need for change. Logic models are a great way to evaluate and understand how interventions lead to certain outcomes.


Brown, L. D., Vasquez, D., Salinas, J. J., Tang, X., & Balcázar, H. (2018). Evaluation of healthy fit: A community health worker model to address Hispanic health disparities. Preventing Chronic Disease, 15(1).

Mills, T., Lawton, R., & Sheard, L. (2019). Advancing complexity science in healthcare research: The logic of logic models. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 19(1).

Nesbitt, S., & Palomarez, R. E. (2016). Increasing awareness and education on health disparities for health care providers. Ethnicity & Disease, 26(2), 181-188.

Velasco-Mondragon, E., Jimenez, A., Palladino-Davis, A. G., Davis, D., & Escamilla-Cejudo, J. A. (2016). Hispanic health in the USA: A scoping review of the literature. Public Health Reviews, 37(1).


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