Culturally Competent Social Work Practice (20 points)
A. Ethical decision – making and dilemmas in social work practice with this group (Refer to Code of Ethics) Provide an example of this
B. The impact of student’s findings in self
C. Empirically based findings for culturally competent practice with the population (i.e. collectivism vs. individualism)
D. Evaluating the effectiveness of current status of social work practice with this population (familial vs. individual)
Stephen F. Austin State University
Asian migration to the United States has increased to nearly half a million annually from 1965 to date. A significant proportion of Asian communities live in Texas, while the rest are dispersed across the United States. In contrast to earlier migrations waves, the post-1965 Asian migration to America has not elicited negative reactions such as exclusion among the native whites. The new Asian migrants and their children are rapidly gaining acceptance in the United States. The Asian communities are integrated into (Barber, R.2017). residential communities, colleges, universities, and places of work. The success of Asian immigrants in America suggests that race is no longer a decisive factor in shaping the socio-economic achievements as it was in the past. The increased migration of Asians to the United States has continued to shape the characteristics of American culture and the patterns of discrimination towards minority groups. This is because the Asian community has significantly contributed to great diversity and inclusion in America.
Until 1965, the immigration of Asians to the United States served as the basis for exclusion politics. Mid-nineteenth century, the arrival of the Chinese population across western states provoked nativist sentiments and hostility towards the people of Chinese origin. Asian Americans, including Chinese Americans, have confronted a long history of exclusion and inequality. However, after 1965, significant policy changes in America and China opened a new chapter for Chinese migration to the United States (Re-Imagining Migration, 2017). The 1965 Immigration Act of the United States opened new migration pathways for non-European immigrants. At the same time, China relaxed its emigration control, paving the way for more Chinese to migrate to America. Since then, the Chinese immigrants’ population has grown to about two and a half million or about five-point five percent of the overall foreign-born population (Echeverria-Estrada & Batalova, 2020). Today, the United States is the top destination for Chinese immigrants. This accounts for twenty-seven percent of more than twelve million Chinese living and working outside China. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion about Chinese immigrants in the United States.
General Description of the Ethnic Group
Chinese immigrant population has grown seven-fold between 1980 and now to reach two and a half million people. Chinese immigrants represent the third-largest group of foreign-born after Mexican and Indian immigrants (Echeverria-Estrada & Batalova, 2020). Throughout history, Chinese immigrants have confronted a long legacy of exclusion and inequality. However, after 1965, the Immigration Act of the United States and the relaxation of China’s emigration control improved the Chinese American relationship, paving the way for more Chinese migration to America. Today, Chinese Americans are distributed across the United States, with a significant proportion in San Antonio and El Paso, Texas.
The Density of the Chinese population in the U.S. and in Texas
Research shows that Asian minorities constitute about seventeen million of the total population of the United States. The Chinese population in America comprises about five and a half million individuals born in China or report a Chinese ancestry or race (Echeverria-Estrada & Batalova, 2020). The number of Chinese immigrants residing in America nearly doubled between 1980 and 1990 and again in 2000. Since then, the Chinese population in America has continued to grow but at a lower rate. By 2010, about twenty-nine thousand, five hundred and thirty-six Chinese resided in Houston, Texas. Since then, more Chinese immigrants have moved to America, and Texas has received a significant proportion of immigrants from China. Today, about one million, two hundred and ninety-two thousand, eight hundred and thirteen Asians live in Texas, with Chinese being the largest sub-group.
The General Pattern of Entrance to the United States
Research shows that the number of Chinese immigrants soared after the United States passed the Immigration Act in 1965, lifting the ban on Chinese immigration to the United States. At the same time, China relaxed its emigration regulations, paving the way for more Chinese to move to the United States. Between 1882 and 1943, the federal government of the United States restricted the entrance of Chinese to America. This was a federal policy originating from the concerns that more Chinese were coming to America as a response to the demand for cheap labor. Competition with American workers and growing nativism caused Congress to pass a law that suspended Chinese immigration to America.
The restrictive Acts were repealed in 1943, but numerous immigration laws continued to impact America’s Chinese entrance. Certain federal agencies enforced exclusion laws and restricted the immigration of Chinese to America. However, after 1965, the second wave of Chinese migration started, and more Chinese moved to America with ease. After all, restrictions were lifted in 1965, the Chinese began to arrive in America in large numbers, and the first Chinatowns started to appear in most American cities. Since 1965, more Chinese have moved to America in search of better employment opportunities. However, starting from as early as 1980, China stands out as the primary source of international students enrolling in American universities and colleges. As a result, Chinese immigrants are better educated than other populations and are likely to be employed in managerial positions.
Characteristics of the Culture at Multiple levels
Arguably, the relaxation of restrictive policies towards Chinese immigrants and their increased migration to the United States has significantly impacted the American culture. The Chinese migration opened up America to increased development and ensured America’s economic dominance. Elsewhere, across multiple levels, the Chinese traditional cultural values of benevolence, courtesy, and honesty are embodied in how Americans interact with each other. Chinese hold benevolence with the highest esteem and believe that peace contributes to families and society’s general growth. This is based on family ties but extends to social relationships to produce justice, courtesy, and discipline.
Confucianism profoundly influences the Chinese culture to place heavy emphasis on respect for authority, family, and social harmony—the Chinese place great values on family and family structures. As a result, marriage, family, and children are very significant (Margaux, 2020). The Chinese treat older people with respect and dignity irrespective of whether they are family members or not. This is contrary to how Americans treat senior members of society like any other community member and fail to place them at the highest pedestal. At the same time, Chinese festivals are vital to their culture. Traditional festivals are central to the Chinese culture irrespective of which part of the world they live in.
Patterns of discrimination toward this group
Arguably, Chinese immigrants have confronted a long legacy of exclusion and discrimination in America. Chinese have played a central role in building the United States. However, from 1882, Chinese immigrants experienced heightened discrimination when the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed, restricting the immigration and naturalization of Chinese based on their race for the next sixty years. This was in response to public sentiments and organized labor lobbying (Echeverria-Estrada & Batalova, 2020). Chinese immigrants are among the model minority but have not been immune to discrimination. Also, the children of Chinese immigrants faced discrimination in relation to school policies and practices during the periods of economic recession and demographic shifts. Today, the coronavirus pandemic has caused discrimination against Chinese immigrants to resurface. Chinese immigrants argue that discrimination is part of America’s long history of xenophobia, where immigrants have been tied to diseases.
Legislation/policy that assists this group
Chinese immigrants constitute a significant minority population that belongs to the protected class. As such, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects from discrimination based on their race, the nationality of origin, and other identifiable features. Also, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 abolished the race-based quota system and forbade discrimination when issuing visas based on nationality, race, and sex (Barber, 2017). This Act replaced the race-based quota system with a system that prioritizes refugees, skills, and those with families in America.
Customs and Traditions
Holidays and Celebrations
Chinese immigrants celebrate seven public holidays from every part of the world. These are the new year, the Spring festival, the Qingming Festival, Labor Day, the dragon boat day, the mid-autumn festival, and the golden week. However, the most important Chinese holiday is the spring festival celebrated by all Chinese communities, including those in the diaspora.
The traditional Chinese foods include meat such as pork, beef, chicken, and duck. Also, rice is a traditional food in Chinese cuisine. Therefore, Chinese fried rice is a complete meal to serve an entire family. Another traditional food for the Chinese community is Kung pao chicken. This is an authentic traditional dish found in most Chinese restaurants in Chinatowns across the United States. Another traditional food is Chinese noodle which has been around for over four thousand years.
The Chinese traditional Confucian culture has a strict doctrine that causes gender stratification and power distribution (Zuo, Lou, Gao, Lian & Shah, 2018). As a result, Chinese culture is male-dominated, and women subordinate themselves to men in every sphere of life. Daughters submit to their fathers and wives to their husbands.
Views toward Marriage and Inter-Racial Marriage
The Chinese culture holds family with the highest esteem and encourages young people to get married for the continuation of generation. However, these views are slowly changing as more young people delay getting married or chose not to. The Chinese encourage inter-racial marriage to bring unity and promote cultural exchange.
Views and Customs on Childbearing
Chinese views and customs acknowledge childbearing and childrearing. Consequently, when children are born, mothers are encouraged to stay for a full month with them without doing any other duty in practice for over a thousand years (Zheng, Watts & Morrell, 2019). The Chinese welcome children and consider them a continuation of a lineage. However, parents are strict with their children because the choice made by children reflect on them.
Views toward the Elderly in this Group
Chinese immigrants treat older people with a lot of respect and dignity. The old are considered wise based on their lived experience in stable and unstable societies. Therefore, family systems give honor, authority, security, and a sense of immortality to older people.
The Chinese people are spiritual and believe in the concept of Daoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. As such, they do not strictly adhere to one religion. They carry out religious observance suitable to the occasion. Their spirituality is embodied in people’s normal daily lives and not an organized institution above ordinary life.
Views toward Death
Chinese base their understanding of death on Confucianism and believe that no one should be afraid of death if they lived a moral life. At the same time, they see death as part of life and must be accepted. However, they try to avoid thinking about death to avoid upsetting the inner harmony that must be maintained.
Differences within this Cultural Group and between it and other Groups
There are several differences within this cultural group. For instance, the Chinese in America have adopted the American culture and are slowly shedding some of their traditional cultures. On the other hand, Chinese culture differs from American culture because it is based on Confucianism. Family values such as respect and human dignity are upheld and influence society’s overall good.
Strengths of this Group
Chinese immigrants boast of several strengths. For instance, they recognized racial inequality in America and appreciated that they are a small, despised minority. As a result, they invested their time and energy in education than other groups, thus becoming a constituent of the highly educated immigrants most sought after by big corporations in America and elsewhere.
Brief description of the country of origin
Chinese immigrants originate from China. This is the world’s largest nation with a population of almost one a half billion people. China is the third-largest country by area with about nine-point six million square kilometers. Also, China is the second-largest economy in the world after the United States. The Chinese’s first migration wave was influenced by China’s economic chaos and, therefore, wanted to try their luck in California God Rush. However, when the California Gold Rush ended, the Chinese became a source of cheap labor. In the nineteenth century, China’s economy was not as vibrant and as good as the United States’, and several of its citizens were poor. In nineteenth-century, China’s economy began to falter because of the opium wars and the Taiping Rebellion that left many Chinese with no option but to migrate to other countries, with America being the preferred destination.
History’s effects on the culture (strife-torn country? political oppression? Holocaust, Germany; apartheid in South Africa).
Arguably, significant historical events affected Chinese culture and contributed to the first wave of migration to the United States. In the early nineteenth century, China was the world’s largest economy because of significant trade in opium. However, the economy began to falter because of the opium wars. The aftermath of the war led to bitter political struggles that pushed many people out of their country (Hayes, 2019). After the opium wars, the Taiping rebellion emerged, making China inhabitable to many Chinese. The war lasted for fourteen years, left more than twenty million people dead, and ravaged over seventeen provinces. A series of rebellions, civil unrest, famine, and drought, affected the Chinese culture and made life unbearable in China, forcing several Chinese citizens to flee to America after gold was discovered in China.
Identify what U.S. citizenship/residency can offer them and what their dreams are for the future.
China is by far one of the best countries in the world. However, more Chinese are still leaving permanently for the United States, perhaps because they hope to find better lives. Still, others are moving to America to find better education, escape troubles in their country, and be with their families that went there before. In America, there are several undocumented people who are likely to be deported if immigration agencies catch up with them, and Chinese illegal immigrants are among them. Therefore, obtaining U.S. citizenship will allow them to live and work in America without worrying about the possibility of deportation. Also, most immigrants leave their families in their country of origin to try their luck in America. Therefore, obtaining U.S citizenship will make their children automatically become citizens of America, even if they were born elsewhere. Besides, they will no longer need to deal with immigration paperwork. America is a land of opportunity for everyone with big dreams. Therefore, obtaining American citizenship enables immigrants to meet their future dreams because they become free to live and work in America.
Culturally Competent Social Work
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Zuo, X., Lou, C., Gao, E., Lian, Q., & Shah, I. H. (2018). Gender/attitudes, Roles, awareness, and experiences of non-consensual sex in university students in Shanghai, China. Reproductive Health, 15(1), 49.