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Arizona State University Law Discussion Responses


1-As indicated by Santos (2017) an issue is broke down into three stages which are the prelude, incident, and aftermath. The prelude is what occurs before the behavior, the incident is the behavior, and the aftermath is what occurs after the behavior or the aftereffect of the episode. Ultimately, understanding a criminal’s mind is the best way to reduce crime. Sure, police can arrest criminals, but this doesn’t prevent others from committing the same crimes, or even worse crimes, in the future. Once we understand how criminals think, we will be able to understand why they are committing crimes in the first place and stop it from happening. For example, some people may become abusive because they were abused as children, while others might commit a crime because they are mentally ill. All of this information is incredibly useful and having information is the best way to understand why crimes occur and figure out ways to reduce the rate of crime in society. One would basically comprehend a crime problem through visiting and dissecting the circumstance of the crime location, recognizing the weapons thought to be utilized to complete the offense, distinguishing and contemplating casualties of a specific crime, and consider the nature of the suspects of a crime problem (Townsley et al, 2016). I think having more criminal psychologists would definitely benefit the Criminal Justice system. Having more professionals study crimes and criminals can be a great way to explore new ideas to prevent crime. What we do know, though, is that childhood plays an important role in whether someone will become a criminal. However, as with all psychology, nothing is certain. Someone can have a perfectly good childhood and end up being a criminal anyway. But the average chance of a person becoming a criminal depends on certain factors. Having more discussions on this topic and more professionals studying crime can lead to more opportunities to understanding specific crime problems.


Boba Santos, R. (2017). Crime analysis with crime mapping (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN-13: 9781506331034

Levitt, M. (2013). Perceptions of nature, nurture and behaviour. Life Sciences, Society and Policy, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/2195-7819-9-13

Ling, S., Umbach, R., & Raine, A. (2019). Biological explanations of criminal behavior. Psychology, Crime & Law, 25(6), 626–640. https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316x.2019.1572753

Townsley, M., Birks, D., Ruiter, S., Bernasco, W., & White, G. (2016). Target selection models with preference variation between offenders. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 32(2), 283-304.

2- The analysis depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the problem, the data available for analysis, and the results of the initial analysis. The importance of knowing the nature of a specific crime problem is an abundance of information is found when we look at the overall nature. The nature of the crime shows us what happens before, during, and after the crime has occurred. According to Birks et al (2020), to know the nature of the specific problem, analyst look at the prelude, what lead up to the criminal behavior, the incident, the immediate problematic behavior, and the aftermath, which is what followed the events of the criminal activity. All these parts of the activity are important to examine to understand a problem.

To understand a specific crime problem, we must look at the sequence and actions of those involved in the events that make up the problem and the second is to look at the broader environment in which these events are occurring. The problem would then be narrowed to a specific behavior and environment and would be similar enough that a common process can be identified. To better understand the specific problem, we must focus on what mechanisms and opportunities allow or encourage the problematic activity. According to Schaefer et al (2017), at this stage, the analyst has only partial information, so the goal here is to speculate and hypothesize, how the environment is creating opportunities for this activity. A problem analysis triangle can be utilized to understand the full circle of a specific problem and how each variable affect each other.


Birks, D., Coleman, A., & Jackson, D. (2020). Unsupervised identification of crime problems from police free-text data. Crime Science, 9(1). https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1186/s40163-020-00127-4

Schaefer, L., Mazerolle, L., & Kapnoulla, M. (2017). Different actions for different crimes: Explaining individual action in local crime problems. Journal of Community Psychology, 45(7), 922–939. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1002/jcop.21…

3- There is a great deal of importance in knowing the nature of a specific crime problem especially if trying to prevent and decrease the crime overall. If one is able to think like a criminal or predict the next steps of a criminal, it could make a world of difference. By knowing the nature of specific crimes, it will help when employing the strategies to decrease crime in an effective manner and positioning police in the area. So, by looking at the environment and the actions and sequence of the events that cause the problem it adds some context to help understand the problem at hand (Santos, 2017). According to Bond & Hajjar (2013) crime occurs in clusters and remain stable over time which signifies a problem, so if we go with this premise, it would be predictable where crime will occur. The information that can be used to help understand the problem will come from police reports, conversations with officers, offenders, and victims. The environment in which these crimes occur could be inviting crime opportunities, but some information will not be known so speculation will happen when determining what drives this behavior. According to Santos (2017) a problem is analyzed in three steps which are the prelude, incident, and aftermath. The prelude is what happens prior to the behavior, the incident is the problematic behavior, and the aftermath is what happens after the problem behavior or the result of the incident (Santos, 2017).

Areas that are crime ridden are filled with crime for a reason and when that reason is understood it is much easier to target an area due to the knowledge held about such area. Now although many areas may be high crime areas, does not mean randomly placing officers in the area will be efficient (Wang & Zhang, 2019). Now theories like the routine activity theory and crime pattern theory are useful in determining the why and the motivator to continue the crime. Research has also shown that crime that happens in one area is most likely going to happen in an area that is within close proximity to the previous place therefore it not a random crime (Wang & Zhang, 2019).


Bond, B. J., & Hajjar, L. M. (2013). Measuring Congruence between Property Crime Problems and Response Strategies: Enhancing the Problem-Solving Process. Police Quarterly, 16(3), 323–338. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098611113497041

Santos, R. (2017). Crime analysis and crime mapping (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/9781506331041/…

Wang, Z., & Zhang, H. (2019). Understanding the spatial distribution of crime in hot crime areas. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 40(3), 496. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/sjtg.12…

Respond to those students discussion boards. each response should be 150+ words followed by its own references


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